Core Module Information
Module title: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Spatial problems in Crowded Environments

SCQF level: 11:
SCQF credit value: 40.00
ECTS credit value: 20

Module code: TSM11128
Module leader: Martin Robertson
School The Business School
Subject area group: Tourism and Languages

There are no pre-requisites for this module to be added

Description of module content:

The following areas will be explored in this module

Introduction to crowds
This aspect will focus on, body size and their effect on crowd densities. The impact of crowd density on movement. The relationships between walk speed, crowd density, crowd flow and user experience.

Level of Service Concept in complex environments.
The concept of level of service will be explored. Levels of service in different physical contexts (e.g., level ground vs. stairs), event mode (ingress vs. egress) and physical environment (e.g., public space vs. built environment).

Design and Operational Standards
Design standards and guidance vs. operational parameters for crowd densities, flow rates, egress and evacuation times. Design and operational standards in different environments (events, stadiums, rail stations, multi-venue precincts) and during different phases of an event and how these are applied in multi venue situations.

Human and Crowd Behaviour.
In this section, students will learn how an understanding of the Objectives, Knowledge and information available to individuals as well as least cost principles influence human and crowd movement and behaviours.

Crowd Disasters and Risk Management
During this part of the module, crowd hazards and risks arising within and from crowded places will be examined. Risk assessment and management will be a focus leading into the lessons learned from crowd disasters through the use of case studies. Organising for safety is a key aspect interrogated in this section.

Crowd Modelling & Simulation
An introduction to modelling concepts and how these are utilised in project terms will be developed. Types of crowd model: qualitative, static, mesoscopic, microscopic / simulation modelling will be explored and applied. The benefits and disadvantages of each will be identified. Inputs to crowd models, sensitivity and scenario testing will also be explored. Questions to ask of crowd consultants and models will be developed through the use of case studies.

Crowd Planning
Worked examples of crowd plans will be explored and crowd demand and density distribution tackled. The areas of capacity, evacuation capacities, queueing, demand forecasting, risk and sensitivity testing will all be investigated

Crowd Monitoring.
The different techniques, benefits and pitfalls of crowd monitoring will be explored and applied.

The final outcome of the module will be engage students in the creation of models of good practice and to prepare a case study using their own models to explain how an event or challenging situation could have been averted, modified or delivered differently through the use of hindsight and good practice.

Learning Outcomes for module:

LO1. Critically evaluate crowd dynamics for normal and emergency situations.

LO2. Critically assess the benefits and pitfalls of a range of crowd modelling techniques in the practical application of design, planning and management of spaces.

LO3. Critically appraise a number of challenge dynamics at an event, particularly safety risks, and determine a crowd risk assessment

LO4. Consider and compile a plan for crowd flow and public safety for phases of an event or crowded space with consideration of event risks, standards and/or guidance, crowd density and flow parameters.

LO5. Evaluate a range of crowd monitoring techniques and their related benefits and disadvantages.

Full Details of Teaching and Assessment
2021/2, Trimester 2, BLENDED,
Occurrence: 001
Primary mode of delivery: BLENDED
Location of delivery: CRAIGLOCKHAR
Member of staff responsible for delivering module: Martin Robertson
Module Organiser:

Learning, Teaching and Assessment (LTA) Approach:
The teaching and learning approach of this module will encourage independent self centred learning challenging students to conceptualise, debate, critique and critically engage with the concepts of crowd dynamic, modelling and developing interdisciplinary approaches to this area. Participants will be encouraged to work together as this provides focus in the delivery of the theoretical concepts through the practical elements also involved. Through a dialogue participants will synthesize the relevant aspects of the module and then deliver these in a practical manner. Lectures, tutorials and applied materials (theoretical processes; applied modelling, scenario based learning and a/v materials) will be the central learning tools used for the module to encourage creative, reflective and active learning. Theory will be developed through a wide range of key texts, journal articles, case studies and on line resources enabling students to deepen their knowledge and understanding of the subject area whilst applying these theories in practice.

Formative Assessment:
A practical examination will be held at the end of the workshop where participants will be given a sereis of problems to work out related to crowd modelling and the dynamics associated with it. This will contribute 10% to the assessment and will enable the facilitator to evaluate how well the participants grasp the practical elements of the subject in relation to the theory provided. The assessment will be a practical where the participants are given a crowded space to work within and then asked to provide theories and calculate answers then delivering the answers in a practical manner identifying the positive and negative characteristics through a resentation at the end of the practical

Summative Assessment:
At the end of the module a report is required on a pre-identified project which the participant will be assigned to asking for them to outline the project, the issues identified, the assumptions made and tested and the possible outcomes (2000 words)

Student Activity (Notional Equivalent Study Hours (NESH))
Mode of activityLearning & Teaching ActivityNESH (Study Hours)
Face To Face Practical classes and workshops 12
Face To Face Tutorial 10
Independent Learning Guided independent study 106
Independent Learning Groupwork (Independent Study) 58
Face To Face Supervised time in studio/workshop 14
Total Study Hours200
Expected Total Study Hours for Module200

Type of Assessment Weighting % LOs covered Week due Length in Hours/Words
Practical Skills Assessment 40 2, 4 & 5 8 HOURS= 01.00
Report 50 1, 4 14/15 , WORDS= 2000
Class Test 10 1, 3 1 HOURS= 00.30
Component 1 subtotal: 0
Component 2 subtotal: 0
Module subtotal: 0

Indicative References and Reading List - URL:
Contact your module leader